The 2023 NGCRC’s 26th International Gang Specialist

Training Conference (July 31 - August 2, 2023):

Advance Curriculum and Course Offering Information  

 

 

            The full conference information is available at https://ngcrc.com/2023.conference.html

   

            Some of the training sessions are available now and up to the time frame of Aug. 4, 2022 at the Video-Based Gang Training Website: Https://ngcrc.com/videopage.html

 

            You get a password you will need for accessing the on-line video training sessions; you get the password in your “Confirmation of Conference Registration” letter when you register for the 2023 training program. Password expires 8-3-2023.


            Most sessions are “in-classroom” face-to-face instruction types of training sessions that are taught on-site at the conference hotel on July 31 - Aug. 2, 2023 in Chicago. Some are available both in-person and on-line. Some are available only on-line.

            

            This advance listing shows that there are N = 12 sessions currently listed below for the 2023 program. We are, of course, expecting to add more. Note: the numbering and sequence of sessions listed below is subject to change.

 

Last updated: August 8, 2023 


The Numbering Sequence of the Sessions is subject to change.

 

(1) “The Use of Drones By Gangs To Smuggle Contraband into Correctional Institutions: Part 1 of 3”, by George Knox, Ph.D. and D. Lee Gilbertson, Ph.D., NGCRC Staff.

            One (1) hour

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs; Gang Crime Investigation Skills.

            Special Note: This session is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — the VIDEOPAGE. It is technically ready to view and complete now, before the conference begins. You will automatically get a password for accessing the video training files once you register for the conference.

            Special note on required reading: please read before viewing this video consists of a document located at: https://ngcrc.com/dronepaper.pdf

            Abstract

            Gangs and STG’s have a long history in trying to control the smuggling of drugs and cell phones into prisons. The use of drones to smuggle contraband into correctional institutions began in earnest in 2013. That’s when four offenders were arrested in a drone smuggling incident at the Calhoun State Prison in Morgan, Georgia. This is a 3 part series of a narrated power point video presentation. Part 1 covers gang involvement with inmate economic rackets and smuggling contraband, and new FAA regulations. The problem of gangs/STG’s using drones and a detailed historical chronology of examples of prison drone smuggling is provided.

            Bios

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.

            D. Lee Gilbertson is a tenured professor at a state university in Minnesota and has been teaching since August 2000. He has studied gangs, militias, and extremist groups since 1995. He actively consults in the US and the UK with attorneys, law enforcement investigators, and medical examiners in the areas of forensic victimology and postmortem assessment, as well as crime analysis and mapping. Lee has presented at numerous national and international conferences and has participated in all of the NGCRC Gang Colleges. He is a recipient of the Frederic Milton Thrasher Award (2002, 2005, 2008) and the Curtis Robinson Leadership Award (2015). Lee is the Executive Editor for the Journal of Gang Research and is a member of the NGCRC Staff. His background includes a Ph.D. in sociology, MS in criminal justice, and 16 years of exemplary military service (infantry and signals intelligence).


(2) “Gang/STG Intelligence: What We Know from the U.S. County Jails”, by George W. Knox, Ph.D., Executive Director, NGCRC.

            One (1) hour

            Note: is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — the VIDEOPAGE.

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Gangs and Mental Health; Gang Profile Analysis; Hate Groups / White Racist Extremist Gangs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs.

            Abstract

            This presentation focuses on what we know about gang and STG activity inside American county jails. It covers the kinds of challenges that jail correctional officers face in the real world. Examined in detail are those aspects of gang life that impact on safety and security (fights, threats, attacks, homemade weapons, racial conflict, etc). Attendees will learn get a detailed briefing on what is going on with regard to gangs in the context of American county jail facilities. Upon completion attendees will have a better understanding of the national picture of dealing with gangs in the jail environment.

            Bio

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.


(3) “Gang/STG Corrections Intelligence: What We Know From State Prisons in the USA — Part 1 of 4”, by George W. Knox, Ph.D., Executive Director, NGCRC.

            One (1) hour

            Note: This is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — the VIDEOPAGE. Available for viewing now.

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Gangs and Mental Health; Gang Profile Analysis; Hate Groups / White Racist Extremist Gangs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs.

            Abstract

            This presentation focuses on what we know about gang and STG activity inside American state prisons. Attendees are provided a full coverage of the latest accurate information on the following topics covered: special housing for informants; racial conflicts and race relations; contraband cell phones; overcrowding and stress and trauma on the job; suicide problems by inmates and staff; the “VID” factor and PTSD; exposure to trauma and stress on the job; increased radicalization of inmates; religious extremism; gang/STG abuse of religious worship; review of the largest white racist extremist gangs; Islamic gangs and gangs that seek to control religious services; the concept of gang density and its three measurement components; gang recruitment behind bars; inmate complaints about gang recruitment; extent of recruitment in prisons today.

            Bio

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.


(4) “Gang/STG Corrections Intelligence: What We Know From State Prisons in the USA — Part 2 of 4”, by George W. Knox, Ph.D., Executive Director, NGCRC.

            One (1) hour

            Note: This is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — available to view now through the VIDEOPAGE.

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Gangs and Mental Health; Gang Profile Analysis; Hate Groups / White Racist Extremist Gangs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs.

            Abstract

            This presentation focuses on what we know about gang and STG activity inside American state prisons. Attendees are provided a full coverage of the latest accurate information on the following topics covered: measuring the three aspects of gang density; how gang importation is added with joining inside; extent to which prisons report white inmates have a separate gang; names of the largest gangs in American prisons; the prevalence of reports of military trained gang members; names of the largest motorcycle gangs behind bars; reports of gang leaders influencing politicians; pressure to play down the gang problem; political corruption over time: 1994 to present; whether gangs that exist inside operate by the same name outside of prison; comparing street gangs and prison gangs; the extent to which gangs/STGs cause management problems; the problem of housing all members of one gang together.

            Bio

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.


(5) “Gang/STG Corrections Intelligence: What We Know From State Prisons in the USA — Part 3 of 4”, by George W. Knox, Ph.D., Executive Director, NGCRC.

            One (1) hour

            Note: This is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — available for viewing now through the VIDEOPAGE.

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Gangs and Mental Health; Gang Profile Analysis; Hate Groups / White Racist Extremist Gangs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs.

            Abstract

            This presentation focuses on what we know about gang and STG activity inside American state prisons. Attendees are provided a full coverage of the latest accurate information on the following topics covered: gang/STG member control of inmate economic rackets; cash seized from gang inmates; stronger gang affiliation after serving time; STG’s smuggle in contraband cell phones, make more improvised weapons; extent of formal gang training for prison staff today; threats and assaults against staff from prison gang members; the 2015 New York correctional union protest billboard portends the future — more protest billboards; whether inmate classification systems take gang membership into account; gangs extort money from inmate workers; whether Islamic inmates have separate gangs; are gang members more lawsuit oriented than non-gang members; the three types of prison riots; best estimate for latent terrorists; who wants tougher laws and zero-tolerance; the scarcity of gang renouncement programs; could improving race relations help reduce gang violence in prison; what support exists for no human contact status; large support exists for telephone and mail monitoring.

            Bio

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.


(6) “Gang/STG Corrections Intelligence: What We Know From State Prisons in the USA — Part 4 of 4”, by George W. Knox, Ph.D., Executive Director, NGCRC.

            One (1) hour

            Note: This is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — available for viewing now through the VIDEOPAGE.

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Gangs and Mental Health; Gang Profile Analysis; Hate Groups / White Racist Extremist Gangs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs.

            Abstract

            This presentation focuses on what we know about gang and STG activity inside American state prisons. Attendees are provided a full coverage of the latest accurate information on the following topics covered: 3rd component of gang density; few prisons have programs to help gang/STG inmates quit the gang; small percentage who quit gang life while in prison means basically the first two components of gang density have the greatest weight; gang density adjustment to 63.8% in U.S. prisons is the only estimate with the rigorous three point or triangulated measurement approach; review of the use of 20 strategies to control gangs/STGs; the issue of bus therapy; overwhelming majority of prisons want Congress to pass legislation enabling prisons to jam cell phone signals; new development — about 1/3 of U.S. prisons now report drones have been used to smuggle in contraband (cell phones, drugs); also new — 37.9% of prisons now provide inmates with internet access or email; almost all recognize internet access for inmates creates a new type of danger; few prisons (13.8%) allow prisoner to prisoner email; low grade for federal leadership in responding to the gang problem in the last year; 89.7% expect the gang problem in corrections to increase in the next few years; 79.3% expect the problem of inmate violence from gang members to increase; three-fourths expect an increase in gang members abusing religious rights; 72.4% expect an increase in gang members assaulting correctional officers; and 44.8% expect an increase in radical militancy among inmates.

            Bio

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.


(7) Gang Prevention - Intervention - Counseling Networking Reception”. Douglas L. Semark, Ph.D., is the host, assisted by NGCRC Staff.

            One (1) hour 

            Special Note: 5pm-6pm, Monday, July 31 1, 2023. You need a ticket for the event, you get the ticket by signing up for it on your registration form. The ticket will be waiting for you in your registration packet you receive when you pick up your conference ID credentials.

            Session Credits: Management and Supervision Skills for Gang Specialists; Gang Counseling Skills; Gang Prevention Skills; Gang Problems in K-12 Schools; Gangs and Mental Health.

            Special Procedure for Sign Up: You need to check the “box” on your registration form in order to qualify to attend this event. It is a “ticketed” event. You get the ticket by signing up for it on the registration form itself or by using the ticket request form at the website, or by sending in a request to that effect..

            Abstract

            The gang intervention/prevention reception is a special event at the NGCRC and it has a long history of also being a valuable networking session. Come hear some analysis of the current state of affairs in gang prevention and learn about some people who are really making a difference in the world. This is also the time and venue in which the “NGCRC Spirit of Excellence Awards” are made. There are also door prizes in a random drawing based on your ticket to the event. You need to have a ticket to attend this event. The only way to get a ticket is to sign up for it in advance on the registration form itself.

            Bios

            Douglas L. Semark, Ph.D.is a nonprofit leader with four decades of experience, including 17 years as Executive Director of the Gang Alternatives Program (GAP) in Los Angeles. Semi-retired, he now serves as Executive to the Board and Chief Learning Officer. He provides gang and violence prevention professional development for K-12 school counselors; serves in various advisory capacities; works with various agencies in the areas of violence reduction and community rebuilding, including Violence Prevention Coalition of Greater Los Angeles and the UCLA/Rand Prevention Research Center. He is currently the Director of the Gangfree Life Academy®.


(8) “The Christian Gang Specialist Reception”, by TBA, NGCRC Staff..

            One (1) hour

Note: this is scheduled for Tuesday, August 1, 2023, noon.

            Session credits: Faith-Based Programs for Gang Intervention; Gang Prevention Skills; Gang Counseling Skills; Management Skills for Gang Outreach, Prevention, and Intervention Services; Gang Outreach and Intervention Skills.

Abstract

            This is available only to persons registered for the conference. This will be held during the “lunch hour” (12pm - 1pm) on Tuesday, August 1st, 2023. If you answered "YES" to the question on your registration form "I am interested in networking with Christian gang specialists while at this conference", then you receive a special TICKET inside your registration materials. If you answered "NO" or left the question blank, it was assumed you are not interested. If you would like to change your mind, then you must do so prior to showing up at the conference: you can do it simply by mailing the NGCRC Conference Processing Center a letter or memo to the effect “if I was listed as NO or BLANK for the Christian Gang Specialist Reception, I wish to modify my registration data to reflect the new code of YES for attending this gang specialist networking event”. As we need to plan on how many are attending, no "walk ins" will be allowed. And as is the NGCRC tradition, of course, there are "door prizes" at this reception. Come prepared for some amazing testimony. This is open to anyone for any certification or non-certification registration, you need not be signed up for the Faith Based Programs certification option to attend this session, but you do need to sign up for it in advance. We have been doing the Christian Reception since 1997. It is part of the strong positive tradition of the NGCRC to provide unique training and networking opportunities to those who attend the NGCRC training conference.

            Bio

            The host of the 2023 NGCRC Christian Gang Specialist Reception is TBA (NGCRC staff) assisted by George Knox (NGCRC staff). The format this year will be a sandwich luncheon format with the opportunity to give testimony, door prizes, etc.

(9) “The Use of Drones By Gangs To Smuggle Contraband into Correctional Institutions: Part 2 of 3”, by George Knox, Ph.D. and D. Lee Gilbertson, Ph.D., NGCRC Staff.

            One (1) hour

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs; Gang Crime Investigation Skills.

            Special Note: This session is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — the VIDEOPAGE. It is technically ready to view and complete now, before the conference begins. You will automatically get a password for accessing the video training files once you register for the conference.

            Special note on required reading: please read before viewing this video consists of a document located at: https://ngcrc.com/dronepaper.pdf

            Abstract

            Part 2 in this series provides recent findings from national jail and prison surveys about drones and smuggling. Financial factors are examined with a look at drone incidents in the federal prison system (BOP). An intensive profile analysis is provided for specific drone investigation and prosecution cases — Operation Cellmate (2014-2017) and the Muzzicato case (2019-2020).

            Bios

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.

            D. Lee Gilbertson is a tenured professor at a state university in Minnesota and has been teaching since August 2000. He has studied gangs, militias, and extremist groups since 1995. He actively consults in the US and the UK with attorneys, law enforcement investigators, and medical examiners in the areas of forensic victimology and postmortem assessment, as well as crime analysis and mapping. Lee has presented at numerous national and international conferences and has participated in all of the NGCRC Gang Colleges. He is a recipient of the Frederic Milton Thrasher Award (2002, 2005, 2008) and the Curtis Robinson Leadership Award (2015). Lee is the Executive Editor for the Journal of Gang Research and is a member of the NGCRC Staff. His background includes a Ph.D. in sociology, MS in criminal justice, and 16 years of exemplary military service (infantry and signals intelligence).

 

(10) “The Use of Drones By Gangs To Smuggle Contraband into Correctional Institutions: Part 3 of 3”, by George Knox, Ph.D. and D. Lee Gilbertson, Ph.D., NGCRC Staff.

            One (1) hour

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gangs and Drugs; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs; Gang Crime Investigation Skills.

            Special Note: This session is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — the VIDEOPAGE. It is technically ready to view and complete now, before the conference begins. You will automatically get a password for accessing the video training files once you register for the conference.

            Special note on required reading: please read before viewing this video consists of a document located at: https://ngcrc.com/dronepaper.pdf

            Abstract

            Part 3 provides two more important drone investigation and prosecution case studies — th Kinser case (2018-2020) and the Fort Dix case (2018-2020). The less successful prosecution case involving the 107 Hoover Crips case in the incident at the Oklahoma State Penitentiary is reviewed. Possible covert indicators of drone smuggling are reviewed along with a listing of the most common types of contraband smuggled into prisons. Drone countermeasures and assistance to correctional agencies is discussed. A short 20-question quiz covers the full 3-part training video series.

            Bios

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.

            D. Lee Gilbertson is a tenured professor at a state university in Minnesota and has been teaching since August 2000. He has studied gangs, militias, and extremist groups since 1995. He actively consults in the US and the UK with attorneys, law enforcement investigators, and medical examiners in the areas of forensic victimology and postmortem assessment, as well as crime analysis and mapping. Lee has presented at numerous national and international conferences and has participated in all of the NGCRC Gang Colleges. He is a recipient of the Frederic Milton Thrasher Award (2002, 2005, 2008) and the Curtis Robinson Leadership Award (2015). Lee is the Executive Editor for the Journal of Gang Research and is a member of the NGCRC Staff. His background includes a Ph.D. in sociology, MS in criminal justice, and 16 years of exemplary military service (infantry and signals intelligence).



(11) “The Proud Boys: A Gang Threat Analysis - Part 1 of 2”, by George W. Knox, Ph.D., NGCRC Staff.

            One (1) hour

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gang Profile Analysis; Domestic Counter-Terrorism; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs; Gang Crime Investigation Skills.

            Special Note: This session is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — the VIDEOPAGE. It is technically ready to view and complete now, before the conference begins. You will automatically get a password for accessing the video training files once you register for the conference.

            Special note on required reading: please read before viewing this video consists of a document located at: https://ngcrc.com/proudboysprofile.pdf

            Abstract

            The Proud Boys history (2016-2021) has been one of recurrent violent criminal behavior. It has many of the features commonly found in gang life (special rules for behavior, initiation rites, secret codes and language, color patterns, symbols, clothing preferences, etc). It is shown that independent gang research has previously detected the presence of the Proud Boys as a gang or STG problem in the 2019 national survey of gang problems in U.S. jails. There are many other established and emerging white racist extremist gangs in the U.S., but the Proud Boys are not known to have established any kind of positive alliance with any of them. It would be more reasonable to predict that if the Proud Boys are imprisoned and ended up side-by-side with other STG’s, especially white racist extremist gangs, that they might be among the first to want to do harm to Proud Boy inmates. The militaristic culture of the Proud Boys is examined as well as the historical issue of gangs having a connection to the White House.

            Bio

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization. 


(12) “The Proud Boys: A Gang Threat Analysis - Part 2 of 2”, by George W. Knox, Ph.D., NGCRC Staff.

            One (1) hour

            Session credits: Corrections Gang/STG Intelligence; Dealing With Gang Members in Probation/Parole; Gang Profile Analysis; Domestic Counter-Terrorism; Officer Safety Skills in Dealing With Gangs; Gang Crime Investigation Skills.

            Special Note: This session is provided through the NGCRC’s Digital Video Training Platform — the VIDEOPAGE. It is technically ready to view and complete now, before the conference begins. You will automatically get a password for accessing the video training files once you register for the conference.

            Special note on required reading: please read before viewing this video consists of a document located at: https://ngcrc.com/proudboysprofile.pdf

            Abstract

            The analysis takes a brief look at sixteen Proud Boys, most of whom were participants in the attack on the Capitol on January 6, 2021. The militaristic culture of the Proud Boys is examined as well as the historical issue of gangs having a connection to the White House. It is concluded that even the oldest gang classification scheme (Thrasher,1927) would define the Proud Boys as a political gang. Little evidence has emerged that the Proud Boys could be defined as a state supported gang. The Proud Boys are more akin to a hybrid or third generation gang. The prediction is that facing overwhelming evidence against them, most Proud Boys facing federal prison for the Capitol attack will plead guilty to reduced charges and the group will disappear into obscurity.

            Bio

            George Knox earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He has extensive field experience with gangs, including interviewing gang members, gang leaders, and gang victims. He has taught in the field of criminal justice and sociology. He serves as the Executive Director of the National Gang Crime Research Center. He was the author of the first full textbook on gangs (An Introduction to Gangs) and other books and monographs on gang topics. His research interests include how to deal with gang problems in probation/parole, juvenile corrections, adult corrections, and gang threat analysis — examining the gang as a unit of social organization.